About salmonella typhi infection
What is salmonella typhi infection?
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection that is rare in the United States. However, it is not rare in many other countries. Major symptoms may include unusually high fever, headache, loss of appetite, fatigue, abdominal pain and diarrhea.
What are the symptoms for salmonella typhi infection?
Possible signs and symptoms of salmonella infection include:
Signs and symptoms of salmonella infection generally last a few days to a week. Diarrhea may last up to 10 days, but it may take several months before bowels return to usual stool habits.
A few varieties of salmonella bacteria result in typhoid Fever, a sometimes deadly disease that is more common in developing countries.
What are the causes for salmonella typhi infection?
Salmonella bacteria live in the intestines of people, animals and birds. Most people are infected with salmonella by consuming food or water that has been contaminated by feces.
Infected food and water
Commonly infected foods include:
- Raw meat, poultry and seafood. Feces may get onto raw meat and poultry during the butchering process. Seafood may be contaminated if harvested from contaminated water.
- Raw or undercooked eggs. While an egg's shell may seem to be a perfect barrier to contamination, some infected chickens produce eggs that contain salmonella before the shell is even formed. Raw eggs are used in homemade versions of foods such as mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
- Unpasteurized dairy products. Unpasteurized milk and milk products — sometimes called raw milk — may be contaminated with salmonella. The pasteurization process kills harmful bacteria, including salmonella.
- Fruits and vegetables. Some fresh produce, particularly imported varieties, may be irrigated in the field or washed during processing with water contaminated with salmonella. Contamination can also occur in the kitchen, when juices from raw meat and poultry come into contact with uncooked foods, such as salads.
Improperly handled food
Many foods become contaminated when prepared by people who don't wash their hands thoroughly after using the toilet or changing a diaper or after handling contaminated food.
Infection can also occur if people touch something that is contaminated and then put their fingers in their mouths.
Infected pets and other animals
Animals and pets, especially birds and reptiles, may carry salmonella bacteria on their feathers, fur or skin or in their feces. Some pet foods may be contaminated with salmonella and can infect animals.
What are the treatments for salmonella typhi infection?
Most healthy people recover within a few days to a week without specific treatment. Preventing dehydration with adequate fluid intake can help you recover.
Because salmonella infection can cause dehydration, treatment focuses on replacing lost fluids and electrolytes — minerals that balance the amount of water in the body.
If dehydration is severe, emergency room care or hospitalization may be needed so that fluids can be delivered directly into a vein (intravenous).
In addition to advising you to drink plenty of fluids, your health care provider may recommend:
- Anti-diarrheals. Medications such as loperamide (Imodium A-D) can help relieve cramping from diarrhea. However, they may also prolong the diarrhea associated with salmonella infection.
Antibiotics. Your health care provider may prescribe antibiotics to kill the bacteria. These are usually given if your provider suspects that salmonella bacteria have entered your bloodstream, your infection is severe or you have a weakened immune system.
Antibiotics are not helpful in most cases of salmonella infection. In fact, antibiotics may extend the period in which you carry the bacteria and can infect others. They can also increase your risk of getting infected again (relapse).
What are the risk factors for salmonella typhi infection?
Factors that may increase your risk of salmonella infection include:
- Activities that may bring you into closer contact with salmonella bacteria
- Health problems that may weaken your resistance to infection in general
- International travel. Salmonella infection, including varieties that cause typhoid fever, is more common in developing countries with poor sanitation.
- Owning, handling or petting animals. Some animals, particularly birds and reptiles, can carry salmonella bacteria. Salmonella can also be found in animal pens, tanks, cages and litter boxes.
Stomach or bowel disorders
The body has many natural defenses against salmonella infection. For example, strong stomach acid can kill many types of salmonella bacteria. But some medical problems or medications can short-circuit these natural defenses.
- Antacids. Lowering the stomach's acidity allows more salmonella bacteria to survive.
- Inflammatory bowel disease. This disorder damages the lining of your intestines, which makes it easier for salmonella bacteria to take hold.
- Recent use of antibiotics. This can reduce the number of "good" bacteria in your intestines, which may impair your ability to fight off a salmonella infection.
Some medical problems or medications appear to increase your risk of catching salmonella by weakening your immune system. This interferes with your body's ability to fight infection and disease. Examples include:
- Sickle cell disease
- Anti-rejection drugs taken after organ transplants
Is there a cure/medications for salmonella typhi infection?
By consuming or drinking infected food or water, one can be affected by Salmonella typhi infection or typhoid fever. Stool from sick people, which has a high concentration of bacteria, can contaminate the local water supply. Food supply contamination due to water supply contamination is possible. The bacteria can endure in water or dried sewage for weeks.
- Antibiotics are used to treat typhoid fever because they eliminate the Salmonella germs.
- With proper antibiotic therapy, healing often occurs in seven to ten days.
- Typhoid fever can be effectively treated with several drugs. For many years, chloramphenicol was the first medication of choice.
- Other powerful antibiotics have taken the role of chloramphenicol due to its uncommonly severe adverse effects.
- By determining the location of the infection, the selection of antibiotics is influenced (certain strains from South America show significant resistance to some antibiotics.) Patients receive antibiotic treatment once again if relapses take place.
- Prolonged antibiotic therapy is an option for those who develop chronic illness. For those people, gallbladder must be removed because it could be the source of the chronic infection.
- Drinking fluids helps prevent dehydration that results from a prolonged fever and diarrhea.
- In case you're severely dehydrated, you may need to receive fluids through a vein (intravenously).
- If your intestines become torn, you'll need surgery to repair the hole.
Chloramphenicol and antibiotics such as Ciprofloxacin (Cipro),Azithromycin (Zithromax),Ceftriaxone.
Poor appetite,Headaches,Generalized aches and pains,Fever as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit,Lethargy,Diarrhea