About neapolitan fever

What is neapolitan fever?

Brucellosis is an infectious disease that affects livestock and may be transmitted to humans. It is rare in the United States, but occurs more frequently in other parts of the world. The disorder is caused by one of four different species of bacteria that belong to the genus Brucella. Initial symptoms of infection may be nonspecific including fevers, muscle pain, headache, loss of appetite, profuse sweating, and physical weakness. In some cases, the symptoms occur suddenly (acute), whereas, in others, symptoms may develop over the course of a few months. If brucellosis is not treated, the disease may take months to resolve once appropriate therapy is begun.

Brucellosis may be confined to a certain area of the body (local) or have serious widespread complications that affect various organ systems of the body including the central nervous system. Brucellosis may be prevented if people drink only pasteurized cow and goat's milk. Pasteurization kills the bacteria that cause the disease. However, farmers and people exposed to butchered meat may also be affected by brucellosis.

What are the symptoms for neapolitan fever?

The symptoms of brucellosis vary greatly among affected individuals. Some individuals may have no apparent symptoms (asymptomatic); others can develop serious complications affecting various organ systems. The incubation period may range from 1-3 weeks to several months.

Cases where individuals experience the sudden onset of symptoms may be referred to as acute brucellosis. Cases where affected individuals develop the same symptoms over the course of a few weeks may be referred to as subacute brucellosis. When infection with brucellosis lasts for more than one year it may be referred to as chronic brucellosis.

Approximately 50 percent of people with brucellosis experience the sudden onset of symptoms (acute disease) over a period of one to two days. In some cases, symptoms develop over the course of a few weeks (subacute disease). The initial symptoms of brucellosis are nonspecific and resemble those of a flu-like illness.

Such symptoms may include Fever, Chills, generalized Weakness and Fatigue, Headache, Muscle aches (myalgias), loss of appetite, Weight loss, night sweats, joint pain (arthralgia) and inflammation (arthritis), back pain, Constipation and/or a dry cough. In some cases, brucellosis is characterized by repeated episodes of Fever that recur on and off for more than a year (undulant Fever).

Additional symptoms that may occur in individuals with brucellosis include swollen lymph glands (lymphadenopathy) and/or enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). Enlargement of liver (hepatomegaly) occurs less frequently.

When brucellosis affects only one specific area of the body, it may be referred to as localized brucellosis. Localized brucellosis causes inflammation of affected organs including the bones, skin, liver, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, central nervous system and heart.

One of the most frequent sites of localized infection is the lower back, causing inflammation and pain of the lumbar vertebrae (osteomyelitis). In rare cases brucellosis may cause various skin lesions including papules, ulcers and rashes. Abscesses may affect the liver resulting in jaundice.

Genitourinary tract infection may result in inflammation of the kidney (interstitial nephritis). In men inflammation and pain of the testes (epididymo-orchitis) and inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis) may also occur. Gastrointestinal tract infection may result in Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhea, Constipation, Abdominal pain, and Weight loss.

In some cases, brucellosis may affect the central nervous system (neurobrucellosis). Symptoms of neurobrucellosis include inflammation of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) and inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). Less common symptoms may include increased pressure inside the skull (intracranial hypertension); leakage of cerebrospinal fluid into the optic disk of the eye may cause swelling of the disk (papilledema) potentially resulting in progressive loss of clarity of vision (visual acuity); damage of the optic nerve (optic neuropathy) potentially resulting in loss of vision; bleeding in the brain (intracranial hemorrhage), and stroke.

Another potentially serious complication of brucellosis is acute inflammation of the lining of the heart (endocarditis), which may occur in rare cases. In addition, brucellosis may cause inflammation of nerves (neuritis) in various parts of the body, as well as visual problems and impaired kidney function. Clotting problems and other abnormalities of the blood such as low levels of circulating red blood cells may also occur.

What are the causes for neapolitan fever?

Brucellosis is caused by the infectious bacterium Brucella. Most cases result from exposure to infected animals or contaminated animal products. Humans can contract the disease by eating or drinking food or liquids contaminated by Brucella, breathing in (inhaling) the bacteria, or through direct contact through an open wound. Most cases occur from eating contaminated food products especially improperly pasteurized milk, cheese, or raw meat. Animals may carry the bacteria without any symptoms, which results in the contamination of animal food products such as meat or dairy products. Brucella is most commonly found among cattle, sheep, goats, camels, deer, elk, and pigs.

Inhalation of Brucella or direct contact through an open wound is an occupational hazard associated with slaughterhouse workers, veterinarians, farmers, and others who may come in contact with contaminated animals. Hunters may be at risk of developing brucellosis because they may come in contact with infected animals.

There are six known species of Brucella, although only four of these species cause brucellosis in humans. The four Brucella species are: Brucella abortus, which is carried by cattle; Brucella suis, which is carried by hogs; Brucella melitensis, which is transmitted by sheep and goats; and Brucella canis, which is carried by dogs. Brucella melitensis is the organism that most frequently infects humans and causes the most severe form of the disease. It is important that people drink only pasteurized milk to avoid risk of transmission from cows and goats.

What are the treatments for neapolitan fever?

The treatment of choice for brucellosis is antibiotic drugs, usually the combination of doxycycline and streptomycin. These medications are usually administered for about 6 weeks. Rifampin may be used as an alternative to streptomycin but is usually less effective.

The drugs trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is an adequate alternative, but are not as effective as doxycycline and either rifampin or streptomycin. There is debate in the medical literature as to which is the more effective combination therapy. If serious complications develop, such as acute inflammation of either the membranes that line the brain (meningitis) or the lining of the heart (endocarditis), rifampin may be added to the combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. People with endocarditis associated with brucellosis generally require heart valve replacement in addition to antibiotic therapy. Other treatment is symptomatic and supportive.

Less than 10 percent of people with brucellosis experience a relapse of the disease after antibiotic treatment. Steroid medications (e.g., prednisone) may be administered to those affected individuals who have severe symptoms associated with the release of toxins into the blood (toxemia). Severe pain, especially in the spine, may require pain management with drugs such as codeine.

People with acute brucellosis should restrict their daily activity to avoid fatigue. Complete bed rest is recommended during periods of fever.

What are the risk factors for neapolitan fever?

A bacterial infection called Neapolitan fever can pass from animals to people. People typically contract the disease by consuming raw or unpasteurized dairy products. Fever, tiredness, and joint discomfort are a few Neapolitan fever symptoms and signs that may be present. The Neapolitan fever-causing germs can occasionally be transmitted through the air or by coming into close contact with affected animals.

Symptoms of Neapolitan Fever

Neapolitan fever is not fatal if the treatment has been received on time. Symptoms of Neapolitan fever can be detected between five days and a month, and those are high fever, headache, loss of appetite, backache, weakness, and depression.

Risk factors for Neapolitan fever

  • To avoid a chronic infection, quick symptoms identification and treatment are crucial.
  • Although the illness is rarely fatal if left untreated, it may persist for years. Relapses could also happen.

Following are the risk factors affiliated to the Neapolitan fever:

  • Hazardous dietary habits
  • Inadequate sewage treatment facilities
  • Travel to the endemic place
  • Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
  • Unpasteurized milk obtained from infected cows

Tests conducted to identify the Neapolitan Fever

  • One or more types of Neapolitan fever can be found in blood or urine samples to help diagnose the condition.
  • Biochemical techniques or a technology that causes the fever bacteria to glow when present in the sample can be used to positively identify the bacteria.

Chronic and recurring,Not fatal
Tetracyclines with streptomycin,Co-trimoxazle,Sulfonamides
Intermittent fever,Sweating,Chills,Aches,Mental depression

Is there a cure/medications for neapolitan fever?

Neapolitan fever usually takes up to 5 days to one month to be detected once the test has been conducted. High fever, aching, headache, loss of appetite, backache, weakness, and depression are the symptoms of Neapolitan fever.

Treatment of the Neapolitan Fever

  • Antibiotics are typically effective in treating the infection. However, recovery from treatment can take weeks or even months, and the illness may return.
  • Tetracyclines (with streptomycin), co-trimoxazole, and sulfonamides are efficient antibiotics for prolonged treatment.
  • Bed rest is advised for the patients. Neapolitan fever is chronic in nature, meaning if left untreated, the illness and symptoms could recur.

Neapolitan fever Prognosis
Numerous numbers of humans and animals are affected by the Neapolitan fever globally and it can be avoided by avoiding raw dairy products and by following safety measures when around animals or in a lab.

Prevention from Neapolitan Fever

  • Although there is no human Neapolitan fever vaccination, humans can be protected by eradicating the condition in livestock.
  • All livestock should be vaccinated after being checked to see if it hasn't already contracted the disease and those that have been destroyed.
  • To prevent infection from damaged skin, butchers and people who operate in slaughterhouses should wear protective clothing and eyewear.
  • Some medical professionals advise against unprotected sex until the disease has been eradicated in a patient.
  • An infected person should also regularly monitor their sexual partners for illness symptoms.

Chronic and recurring,Not fatal
Tetracyclines with streptomycin,Co-trimoxazle,Sulfonamides
Intermittent fever,Sweating,Chills,Aches,Mental depression

Video related to neapolitan fever