Your doctor may suspect adenomyosis based on:
- Signs and symptoms
- A pelvic exam that reveals an enlarged, tender uterus
- Ultrasound imaging of the uterus
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the uterus
In some instances, your doctor might collect a sample of uterine tissue for testing (endometrial biopsy) to verify that your abnormal uterine bleeding isn't associated with another serious condition. But an endometrial biopsy won't help your doctor confirm a diagnosis of adenomyosis.
The only way to confirm adenomyosis is to examine the uterus after hysterectomy. However, pelvic imaging such as ultrasound and MRI can detect signs of it.
Other uterine diseases can cause signs and symptoms similar to adenomyosis, making adenomyosis difficult to diagnose. Conditions include fibroid tumors (leiomyomas), uterine cells growing outside the uterus (endometriosis) and growths in the uterine lining (endometrial polyps).
Your doctor might conclude that you have adenomyosis only after ruling out other possible causes for your signs and symptoms.